Zavia to Mercator and vice versa conversion software in Excel

Zavia to Mercator and vice versa conversion software in Excel
Convert Degree to UTM & UTM to Degree

– Large and small orbital diameters
– Leaving the orbital center
– Curve pole radius
– Zones
– half sphere

Satellite positioning systems in surveying engineering

Satellite positioning systems in surveying engineering

Satellite positioning systems

Satellite positioning systems

Satellite positioning systems in surveying engineering are 24-hour space-based navigation systems capable of operating in all weather conditions, generally invested, designed, commissioned and managed by developed countries.

Download the booklet of satellite positioning systems in surveying engineering by Dr. Yahya Jamoor

Building mapping steps

Total Station Training

Total station or TST is an optical device used in modern surveying to capture details, accurately implement tolls on the ground, industrial mapping, incident observations by the police department, crime scene investigators, those They freely reconstruct the crime scene and the insurance companies are used. Total Station is a combination of electronic theodolite (transit), electronic rangefinder (EDM) and software that can be run on an external computer.

TST = Total Station Theodolite

EDM = Electronic Distance Measurement

A person can use angles to determine the angles and distances between the location of the device and the points to be taken. With the help of the triangulation method, angles and distances can be used to calculate the coordinates of real positions (X, Y, Z, planar and altitude) of the harvested points or the position of the device from specific points, in the absolute state. The data can be transferred from the total to the computer and the application software draws a map of the mapped location.

Total + GPS

Some Total Stations include GPS, which combines these two technologies to take advantage of both (GPS = does not require direct vision between shooting points, and Older Total Station = Observations by this device compared to GPS). Especially in the vertical axis is more accurate) and the error and loss of each of them (GPS = low accuracy in the vertical direction without being placed on the point of accuracy is less and Total Station = requires direct vision and Should be justified for a specific point or a line between two points or more points).

Total Station Training

Total Station Training

Measurement mechanism

Most modern Total Station devices measure angles with optical-electronic instruments that scan highly precision digital barcodes engraved on rotating glass disks or cylinders inside the device. The highest quality total stations are able to measure angles with an accuracy of less than 0.5 arcseconds. Inexpensive total stations with degree of construction measure angles with an arc accuracy of 5 or 10 seconds.

The distance measurement is improved by a modulated microwave or infrared carrier signal, which is generated and reflected by the object by a small solid-state emitter located in the optical part of the device. The modulation pattern is read and interpreted in the signal reflected by a computer inside the total station.

The distance is determined by multiple emitted and received frequencies as well as by counting the correct number of wavelengths of each frequency to the desired point.

Most total stations use a glass prism as an EDM signal reflector and can measure up to several kilometers. But some devices are without reflectors and can easily measure the distance of any light-colored object up to several hundred meters.

EDM Total Station can measure distances with an accuracy of 1/10 mm or 1/1000 feet. But the accuracy of ground surveying devices is one millimeter or 1/100 foot. Some modern total stations are robotic. That is, they allow the operator to control the device from a distance by remote control. With this feature of the device, there is no need for the person holding the prism (reflector) at the point to be removed. The operator holds the reflector and controls the Total Station from a point of view.

Source: Apsis

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The complete legend of the surveying organization

Surveying tariff 97 of the country’s surveying organization

تعرفه نقشه برداری 97

سازمان برنامه و بودجه کشور در تاریخ 1397/4/12 طی بخشنامه شماره 97/174474 فهرست بهای نقشه برداری 1397 را به دستگاههای اجرایی و مهندسان مشاور ابلاغ کرد. از تاریخ 1397/1/1 هزینه خدمات نقشه برداری بر اساس این بخشنامه قابل محاسبه می‌باشد. بر اساس این تعرفه هزینه خدمات نقشه برداری نسبت به سال 1396 در حدود ده درصد افزایش یافته است. کلیه دستگاههای اجرایی دولتی که از بودجه عمرانی استفاده می‌کنند با انعقاد قرارداد با شرکتهای مهندسین مشاور ذیصلاح می‌توانند از این تعرفه استفاده نمایند.این تعرفه شامل خدمات نقشه برداری زمینی، فتوگرامتری، هیدروگرافی، سیستمهای اطلاعات مکانی(GIS) و … می‌باشد. کنترل و نظارت بر این قراردادها به عهده سازمان نقشه برداری کشور است.